The Initiative for Public Policy Analysis, a Nigeria public policy think tank, Africa Fighting Malaria and American Enterprise Institute, a
The paper indicates there is prevalence of sub-standard and fake drugs in
According to the International Property Rights Index 2009,
In 1990, 109 children died after being administered fake paracetamol. Reports in the Nigerian media suggested that there was growing resistance to common first-line antimalarials likely driven by both irrational drug use (patients using the wrong medicines, in the wrong way) and the prevalence of substandard medicine (Reef, 2008).
Improvements have been made in the past decade, driven in part by the leadership of a reinvigorated NAFDAC, under then Director General Dora Akunyili (current Minister of Information), which improved policing and prosecution of counterfeiters. By 2006, the number of substandard and counterfeit medicines circulating in Nigeria’s market had fallen to around 16 percent, NAFDAC reported, and Nigerians were consistently ranking NAFDAC as among the most effective of
But problems remained. Fifty-one percent of Nigerians told Gallup-NOI in November 2008 that corruption in the country was higher than it had been five years earlier (NOI-Gallup, 2008). Thirty-two percent of a small sample of antimalarial drugs collected from Lagos area pharmacies in September 2007, as a part of a study of six African countries, failed thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and/or disintegration tests (Bate et al., 2008). Eighty-four children reportedly died between late 2008 and early 2009 from diethylene glycol-contaminated teething medicine “My Pikin Baby Teething Mixture” distributed by the NAFDAC-licensed Barewa Pharmaceuticals (Polgreen, 2009).
While analysts have explored institutional answers to the problem of counterfeit and substandard drugs—improving laws, increasing criminal penalties for counterfeiters, and making enforcement stronger and more consistent— few have explored consumer demand (Erhun et al., 2005; Wong, 2004). It was often assumed that consumers would purchase counterfeit and substandard drugs because they were cheaper—product appearance, prestige associated with use, perceived quality, a consumer’s general attitude toward counterfeiting, and prescription requirements were generally not considered even though some evidence suggested these variables were important (Lai et al, 1999; U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2007).
The aim of this study was to assess the extent healthcare personnel in
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